National Survey on Drug Use and Health
(Source for Tables 1, 2, 4, 18, 40, 59, and 60)
The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), formerly the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA), measures the prevalence of drug and alcohol use among household members ages twelve and older. Topics include drug use, health, and demographics. In 1991, it was expanded to include college students in dormitories, people living in homeless shelters, and civilians living on military bases. The NHSDA was administered by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) from 1974 through 1991; SAMHSA has administered the survey since 1992. The data collection methodology was changed from paper-and-pencil interviews (PAPI) to computer-assisted interviews (CAI) in 1999, and the sample was expanded almost fourfold to permit state-level estimates and more detailed subgroup analyses, including racial and ethnic subgroups and single-year age categories. These and further changes in 2002, including the name change, payment of an incentive to respondents, and improved training of interviewers, have caused breaks in trend data after 1998 and after 2001.
What Americas Users Spend on Illegal Drugs: 1988-2000
(Source for Tables 3, 41, 42, and 50)
This report estimates total U.S. expenditures on illicit drugs based on available drug price, purity, and demand data. Data are provided on estimated numbers of users and both yearly and weekly expenditures for drugs, which are then combined with drug price/purity data to calculate trends in total national drug expenditures and consumption. The first report was published by ONDCP in 1993. It was updated in 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2001. For each update, estimates for all years are adjusted due to changes in the database, methodology improvements, and assumption adjustments. These estimates currently are being updated.
Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of the Lifestyles and Values of Youth
(Source for Tables 5-10)
The Monitoring the Future (MTF) study provides information on drug use trends and changes in values, behaviors, and lifestyle orientations of American youth. The study examines drug-related issues, including recency of drug use, perceived harmfulness of drugs, disapproval of drug use, and perceived availability of drugs. Although the focus of MTF has been high school seniors and graduates who complete follow-up surveys, 8th and 10th graders were added to the study sample in 1991. The University of Michigan has conducted the study under a grant from NIDA since 1975.
Youth Risk Behavior Survey
(Source for Tables 11-13, 15, 17, and 80-81)
The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is a component of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The YRBSS has the following three complementary components: 1) national school-based surveys, 2) state and local school-based surveys, and 3) a national household-based survey. Each of these components provides unique information about various sub-populations of adolescents in the United States. The school-based survey was initiated in 1990, and the household-based survey was conducted in 1992. The school-based survey is conducted biennially in odd-numbered years throughout the decade among national probability samples of 9th through 12th graders from public and private schools. Schools with a large proportion of black and Hispanic students are oversampled to provide stable estimates for these subgroups. The 1992 Youth Risk Behavior Supplement was administered to one in-school youth and up to two out-of- school youths in each family selected for the National Health Interview Survey. In 1992, 10,645 youth ages 12-21 were included in the YRBS sample. The purpose of the supplement was to provide information on a broader base of youth, including those not currently attending school, than usually is obtained with surveys and to obtain accurate information on the demographic characteristics of the household in which the youth reside. Another component of the YRBSS is the national Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ALT-YRBS). Conducted in 1998, ALT-YRBS results are based on a nationally representative sample of 8,918 students enrolled in alternative high schools who are at high risk for failing or dropping out of regular high school or who have been expelled from regular high school because of illegal activity or behavioral problems.
PRIDE USA Survey
(Source for Table 14)
The National Parents Resource Institute for Drug Education (PRIDE) conducts an annual survey of drug use by middle and high school students. The PRIDE survey collects data from students in 6th through 12th grades and is conducted during the school year between September and June. Participating schools are sent the questionnaires with detailed instructions for administering the anonymous self-report instrument. Schools participate on a voluntary basis or in compliance with a school or state request. The study conducted during the 2002-2003 school year involved approximately 110,000 students.
Current Population Survey
(Source for Table 16)
As mandated by the U.S. Constitution, Article 1, Section 2, the U.S. Bureau of the Census has conducted a census every ten years since 1790. The primary purpose of the census is to provide population counts needed to apportion seats in the U.S. House of Representatives and subsequently determine state legislative district boundaries. The information collected also provides insight on population size and a broad range of demographic background information on the population living in each geographic area. The individual information in the census is grouped together into statistical totals. Information such as the number of people in a given area, their ages, educational background, and the characteristics of their housing enable government, business, and industry to plan more effectively.
Substance Abuse Among Probationers and Inmates
(Source for Table 19)
Conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), Office of Justice Programs, Department of Justice, the 1997 Survey on Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities comprises 14,285 interviews for the state survey and 4,041 for the federal survey using computer-assisted personal interviewing (published in December 1998). The survey is conducted every five or six years. The first national survey of adults on probation was conducted in 1995 by BJS and provides information on drug use from personal interviews with a national representative sample of more than 2,000 adult probationers under active supervision (published in March 1998). About 417,000 jail inmates were surveyed in 1998 as part of the survey of inmates in local facilities. The 1998 survey included a special addendum on drug testing, sanctions, and interventions.
Homelessness: Programs and the People They Serve
(Source for Tables 21-22)
The National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients gives a full picture of homeless service users in late 1996. It provides updated information about the providers of homeless assistance services and the characteristics of homeless clients who use these services. Information from this survey was intended for use by federal agencies responsible for administering homeless assistance programs and by other interested parties. The survey was conceived, developed, and funded by twelve federal agencies under the auspices of the Interagency Council on the Homeless, a working group of the White House Domestic Policy Council. The Census Bureau carried out the data collection on behalf of the sponsoring agencies. The survey, released in December 1999, offers the first opportunity since 1987 to update the national picture of homelessness in a comprehensive and reliable way.
Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Military Personnel
(Source for Table 23)
The Department of Defense (DoD) commissioned the Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Military Personnel, a periodic series of surveys on health-related behavior, including illicit drug use, among active-duty military personnel. The survey has been conducted in 1980, 1982, 1985, 1988, 1992, 1995, and 1998 with a representative sample of personnel in the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force. Results of the 2002 survey are expected in 2004.
The Economic Costs of Drug Abuse in the United States
(Source for Tables 24 and 25)
ONDCP commissioned the study The Economic Costs of Drug Abuse in the United States, 1992-2002 to update a previous study sponsored by ONDCP in 2001. Prior to this, the study was conducted by NIDA and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). The report, conducted by The Lewin Group, uses a cost-of- illness methodology and is expected to be released by ONDCP in Spring 2004.
National Vital Statistics Report
(Source for Tables 26 and 27)
Data on drug-induced deaths are based on information from all death certificates filed (2.3 million in 1997) in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Information from the states is provided to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), a component of CDC. The NCHS tabulates causes of death attributable to drug-induced mortality, including drug psychoses; drug dependence; nondependent drug use not including alcohol and tobacco; accidental poisoning by drugs, medicaments, and biologicals; suicide by drugs, medicaments, and biologicals; assault from poisoning by drugs and medicaments; and poisoning by drugs, medicaments, and biologicals, undetermined whether accidentally or purposely inflicted. Drug-induced causes exclude accidents, homicides, and other causes indirectly related to drug use. Also excluded are newborn deaths associated with mothers drug use. The International Classification of Diseases, Version 10 (ICD-10) was implemented in 1999 following conventions defined by the World Health Organization to replace Version 9 (ICD-9), in use since 1979. Because of the change in coding causes of death and the resulting trend discontinuity, death data for 1998 were recalculated by NCHS to provide a benchmark for comparison of ICD-9 and ICD-10 results.
Drug Abuse Warning Network
(Source for Tables 28 and 74-78)
The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) provides data on drug-related emergency department episodes and medical examiner cases. DAWN assists federal, state, and local drug policymakers to examine drug use patterns and trends and assess health hazards associated with drug abuse. Data are available on deaths and emergency department episodes by type of drug, reason for taking the drug, demographic characteristics of the user, and metropolitan area. NIDA maintained DAWN from 1982 through 1991; SAMHSA has maintained it since 1992.
HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report
(Source for Tables 29 and 30)
The HIV/AIDS Surveillance Reports contain tabular and graphic information about U.S. AIDS and HIV case reports, including data by state, metropolitan statistical area, mode of exposure to HIV, sex, race/ethnicity, age group, vital status, and case definition category. The Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, a component of CDC, publishes it semiannually. Data on mode of exposure to HIV are of interest to the Strategy in light of the role of injection drug use in HIV transmission.
Reported Tuberculosis in the United States
(Source for Table 31)
The TB Surveillance Reports contain tabular and graphic information about reported tuberculosis cases collected from 59 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, New York City, U.S. dependencies and possessions, and independent nations in free association with the United States). The reports include statistics on tuberculosis case counts and case rates by states and metropolitan statistical areas with tables of selected demographic and clinical characteristics (e.g., race/ethnicity, age group, country of origin, form of disease, and drug resistance). The Division of TB Elimination, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, a component of CDC, publishes the reports annually. The reports also include information on injection drug use and non-injection drug use among TB cases.
Summary of Notifiable Diseases
(Source for Table 32)
This publication contains summary tables of the official statistics for the reported occurrence of nationally notifiable diseases in the United States, including hepatitis. These statistics are collected and compiled from reports to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, which is operated by CDC in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. These data are finalized and published in CDCs Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Review Summary of Notifiable Diseases, United States for use by state and local health departments; schools of medicine and public health; communications media; local, state, and federal agencies; and other agencies or individuals interested in following the trends of reportable diseases in the United States. The annual publication of the summary also documents which diseases are considered national priorities for notification and the annual number of cases of such diseases.
Uniform Crime Reports
(Source for Tables 33 and 34)
The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) is a nationwide census of thousands of city, county, and state law- enforcement agencies. The goal of the UCR is to count in a standardized manner the number of offenses, arrests, and clearances known to police. Each law- enforcement agency voluntarily reports data on crimes. Data are reported for the following nine index offenses: murder and manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. Data on drug arrests, including arrests for possession, sale, and manufacturing of drugs, are included in the database. Distributions of arrests for drug abuse violations by demographics and geographic areas also are available. UCR data have been collected since 1930; the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has collected data under a revised system since 1991.
Survey of Inmates in Federal Correctional Facilities and Survey of Inmates in State
(Source for Table 35)
The Survey of Inmates in Federal Correctional Facilities (SIFCF) and Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities (SISCF) provide comprehensive background data on inmates in federal and state correctional facilities, based on confidential interviews with a sample of inmates. Topics include current offenses and sentences, criminal histories, family and personal backgrounds, gun possession and use, prior alcohol and drug treatment, and educational programs and other services provided in prison. The SIFCF and SISCF were sponsored jointly in 1991 by BJS and the Bureau of Prisons and conducted by the Census Bureau. Similar surveys of state prison inmates were conducted in 1974, 1979, and 1986. The most recent SIFCF and SISCF were conducted in 1997.
National Prisoner Statistics Program
(Source for Table 35)
The National Prisoner Statistics Program provides midyear estimates and year-end counts of federal and state prisoners, some of whom may be in local facilities or facilities located in other states.
The Monetary Value of Saving a High-Risk Youth
(Source for Tables 36-37)
Based on estimates of the social costs associated with the typical career criminal, the typical drug user, and the typical high school dropout, this study calculates the average monetary value of saving a high-risk youth. The base data for establishing the estimates are derived from other studies and official crime data that provide information on numbers and types of crimes committed by career criminals, as well as the costs associated with these crimes and with drug abuse and dropping out of school.
National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services
(Source for Tables 38-39, and 61)
The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) measures the location, scope, and characteristics of drug abuse and alcoholism treatment facilities throughout the United States. In 2002, SAMHSA redesigned and renamed the survey N-SSATS. It was previously named the Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS) and the National Drug and Alcoholism Treatment Unit Survey (NDATUS). The survey collects data on unit ownership, type, and scope of services provided; sources of funding; number of clients; treatment capacities; and utilization rates. Data are reported for a point prevalence date in the fall of the year in which the survey is administered. Many questions focus on the twelve months prior to that date. The N-SSATS, then called NDATUS, was administered jointly by NIDA and the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism from 1974 to 1991. Since 1992, SAMHSA has administered N-SSATS and its predecessors.
Estimation of Cocaine Availability, 1996-1998
(Source for Table 42)
ONDCP is developing a flow model for cocaine, called the Sequential Transition and Reduction (STAR) model. The STAR model is anchored to two annual estimates of cocaine availability: Andean cultivation estimates, and U.S. domestic consumption estimates. Between these endpoints, other cocaine availabilities are calculated by sequentially transitioning from one stage to another. For example, from net cultivation, the model calculates leaf production by applying leaf yield figures and reductions due to leaf seizures and consumption.
Drug Availability Estimates in the United States
(Source for Table 42)
The report Drug Availability Estimates in the United States, published in December 2002, was developed in response to a request from the Attorney General for measurement of the quantity of illicit substances available to drug users in the United States. ONDCP and DoJ led an interagency effort to develop drug availability estimates for 2001 for the four major drugs - cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and marijuana. Working groups were staffed by members from the following federal agencies: Crime and Narcotics Center (CNC), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), DoJ, NIJ, El Paso Intelligence Center (EPIC), Joint Interagency Task Force West (JIATF-W), National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC), ONDCP, SAMHSA, Department of the Treasury, and the U.S. Interdiction Coordinator. This document is a compendium of the reports from each of the working groups. Updates for 2002 and 2003 are currently underway and are expected for release in Spring 2004. There is significant uncertainty in these estimates due to the illicit and clandestine nature of the drug market, and the limited data currently collected to aid in these analyses.
The Price and Purity of Illicit Drugs, 1981-2000
(Source for Table 43)
This study commissioned by ONDCP reports national-level drug price and purity trends for the three major drugs: cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine. National-level price trends for marijuana are also provided, but purity trends are not because THC content is not typically measured and is not recorded in DEAs database. DEAs System To Retrieve Information on Drug Evidence (STRIDE) is the primary source of data for this study, providing lab analyses of street-level drug purchases. Regional price and purity trends are weighted by DAWN data to calculate a national-level estimate. Updates to these estimates are expected to be published in Spring 2004.
Federal-Wide Drug Seizure System
(Source for Tables 44 and 58)
The Federal-Wide Drug Seizure System (FDSS) is a computerized system that deconflicts overlapping information about drug seizures made by and with the participation of the FBI, DEA, and DHS. The FDSS database includes drug seizures by other Federal agencies (e.g., the Forest Service) to the extent that custody of the drug evidence was transferred to one of the three agencies identified above. The FDSS has been maintained by DEA since 1988.
Drug Enforcement Administration, 1982-1999
(Source for Tables 45 and 72)
DEAs Office of Domestic Cannabis Eradication and Suppression Program provides resources to state and local law enforcement for cannabis eradication. The data tabulated in this table are from state and local law enforcement reporting of the results of their efforts.
University of Mississippi Potency Monitoring Project
(Source for Table 46)
The University of Mississippi (UM) issues a Quarterly Report for the Potency Monitoring Project that publishes average concentrations of THC for various types of cannabis specimens. UM conducts all U.S. government potency testing of eradicated and seized cannabis through a NIDA contract. The specimens of domestically eradicated cannabis are sent to UM from state and local drug labs. Specimens of seized cannabis are sent from DEAs field forensic labs.
International Narcotics Control Strategy Report
(Source for Tables 42, 47, 48, and 51-57)
The International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR) provides the President with information on the steps taken by the main illicit drug-producing and transit countries to prevent drug production, trafficking, and related money laundering during the previous year. The INCSR helps determine how cooperative a country has been in meeting legislative requirements in various geographic areas. Drug supply figures, such as seizures and cultivation estimates are forwarded from each host nation, through the American embassy, to this Department of State report.
Crime and Narcotics Center
(Source for Tables 49 and 51)
The annual potential production estimates for each country cultivating significant amounts of illicit coca and poppy are briefed annually by CNC. These presentations provide the figures used to calculate the potential production numbers for each growing area. Those figures include net cultivation, leaf production, and the relevant figures describing the crop yield and processing efficiencies.
DEA System to Retrieve Information on Drug Evidence
(Source for Table 58)
The System to Retrieve Information on Drug Evidence (STRIDE) is operated by DEA and provides laboratory analyses of street-level drug purchases and of drugs removed from the marketplace where DEA participated in the seizure(s). The system also provides analyses of drug evidence and their physical and chemical attributes to determine geographic origins. It offers indicators of drug availability in the form of long-term trends in the prices and purities of drug exhibits.
Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring/Drug Use Forecasting Program
(Source for Tables 62-71)
NIJ established the Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) program in 1987 to provide an objective assessment of the drug problem among those arrested and charged with crimes. In 1997, this program became the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program. ADAM collected data in 35 major metropolitan sites across the United States in 1998, up from 23 in 1997. Arrestees are interviewed and asked to provide urine specimens that are tested for evidence of drug use. Urinalysis results can be matched to arrestee characteristics to help monitor trends in drug use. The sample size of the data set varies from site to site. Most sites each collect data from 300_700 adult male arrestees. In 2003, adult male arrestee data were reported from 39 sites across the country and data on adult female arrestees were reported from 25 sites.
El Paso Intelligence Center
(Source for Table 73)
EPIC maintains the National Clandestine Laboratory Seizure Database containing information obtained from federal, state, and local law enforcement. EPIC was established in 1974 as a Southwest Border intelligence service center. Today, EPIC concentrates primarily on drug movement and border security issues. Staff at the DEA- led center has increased to more than 300 analysts, agents, and support personnel from 15 federal agencies, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Texas Air National Guard. Information sharing agreements with other federal law enforcement agencies, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and each of the 50 states ensure that EPIC support is available to those who need it. Real-time information is maintained at EPIC via different federal databases, and EPICs own internal database.
The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs: Alcohol and Other
Drug Use Among Students in 30 European Countries
(Source for Table 79)
The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) was jointly published by the Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs, CAN Council of Europe, and Co-Operation Group to Combat Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking in Drugs (Pompidou Group). Under this project, data on drug use prevalence were collected from annual school surveys in up to 30 European countries and the United States in 1995 and 1999. The target age of youth surveyed was 15 years, or approximately 10th grade, and the substances focused on included alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. The group plans to repeat the surveys every fourth year.
Last Updated: December 27, 2004