National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
(Source for Tables 1, 2, 4, 38, 57, and 58)
The NHSDA measures the prevalence of drug and alcohol use among household
members ages twelve and older. Topics include drug use, health, and demographics.
In 1991, it was expanded to include college students in dormitories, people living
in homeless shelters, and civilians living on military bases. The NHSDA was
administered by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) from 1974 through
1991; SAMHSA has administered the survey since 1992. The data collection
methodology was changed from paper-and-pencil interviews (PAPI) to computerassisted
interviews (CAI) in 1999, and the sample was expanded almost fourfold to
permit state-level estimates and more detailed subgroup analyses, including racial
and ethnic subgroups groups and single-year age categories. These and further changes
have caused breaks in trend data after 1998 and after 2001.
What America’s Users Spend on Illegal Drugs: 1988–2000
(Source for Tables 3, 39, 40, 47, and 48)
This report estimates total U.S. expenditures on illicit drugs based on available drug
price, purity, and demand data. Data are provided on estimated numbers of users
and both yearly and weekly expenditures for drugs, which are then combined with
drug price/purity data to calculate trends in total national drug expenditures and
consumption. Abt Associates first wrote the report for ONDCP in 1993. It was
updated in 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2001. For each update, estimates for all years are
adjusted due to changes in the database, methodology improvements, and assumption
adjustments. See the source report for the details.
Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of the Lifestyles and Values of Youth
(Source for Tables 5–10)
The Monitoring the Future (MTF) study provides information on drug use trends
and changes in values, behaviors, and lifestyle orientations of American youth.
The study examines drug-related issues, including recency of drug use, perceived
harmfulness of drugs, disapproval of drug use, and perceived availability of drugs.
Although the focus of MTF has been high school seniors and graduates who complete
follow-up surveys, 8th and 10th graders were added to the study sample in 1991.
The University of Michigan has conducted the study under a grant from NIDA
Youth Risk Behavior Survey
(Source for Tables 11–13, 15, 17, and 78–79)
The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is a component of the Youth Risk Behavior
Surveillance System (YRBSS), maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC). The YRBSS currently has the following three complementary
components: 1) national school-based surveys, 2) state and local school-based surveys,
and 3) a national household-based survey. Each of these components provides unique
information about various sub-populations of adolescents in the United States. The
school-based survey was initiated in 1990, and the household-based survey was
conducted in 1992. The school-based survey is conducted biennially in odd-numbered
years throughout the decade among national probability samples of 9th through 12th
graders from public and private schools. Schools with a large proportion of black and
Hispanic students are oversampled to provide stable estimates for these subgroups. The
1992 Youth Risk Behavior Supplement was administered to one in-school youth and up
to two out-of-school youths in each family selected for the National Health Interview
Survey. In 1992, 10,645 youth ages 12–21 were included in the YRBS sample. The
purpose of the supplement was to provide information on a broader base of youth,
including those not currently attending school, than usually is obtained with surveys and
to obtain accurate information on the demographic characteristics of the household in
which the youth reside. Another component of the YRBSS is the national Alternative
High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ALT-YRBS). Conducted in 1998, ALTYRBS
results are based on a nationally representative sample of 8,918 students enrolled
in alternative high schools who are at high risk for failing or dropping out of regular
high school or who have been expelled from regular high school because of illegal
activity or behavioral problems.
PRIDE USA Survey
(Source for Table 14)
The National Parents’ Resource Institute for Drug Education (PRIDE) conducts an annual
survey of drug use by middle and high school students. The PRIDE survey collects data
from students in 6th through 12th grades and is conducted during the school year between
September and June. Participating schools are sent the questionnaires with detailed
instructions for administering the anonymous self-report instrument. Schools participate
on a voluntary basis or in compliance with a school or state request. The study conducted
during the 2001–2002 school year involved approximately 101,000 students in 21 states.
Current Population Survey
(Source for Table 16)
As mandated by the U.S. Constitution, Article 1, Section 2, the U.S. Bureau of the
Census has conducted a census every ten years since 1790. The primary purpose of
the census is to provide population counts needed to apportion seats in the U.S. House
of Representatives and subsequently determine state legislative district boundaries.
The information collected also provides insight on population size and a broad range of
demographic background information on the population living in each geographic area.
The individual information in the census is grouped together into statistical totals.
Information such as the number of people in a given area, their ages, educational
background, and the characteristics of their housing enable government, business, and
industry to plan more effectively.
Substance Abuse Among Probationers and Inmates
(Source for Table 18)
Conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), Office of Justice Programs,
Department of Justice, the 1997 Survey on Inmates in State and Federal Correctional
Facilities comprises 14,285 interviews for the state survey and 4,041 for the federal
survey using computer-assisted personal interviewing (published in December 1998).
The survey is conducted every five or six years. The first national survey of adults on
probation was conducted in 1995 by BJS and provides information on drug use from
personal interviews with a national representative sample of more than 2,000 adult
probationers under active supervision (published in March 1998). About 417,000 jail
inmates were surveyed in 1998 as part of the survey of inmates in local facilities. The
1998 survey included a special addendum on drug testing, sanctions, and interventions.
Homelessness: Programs and the People They Serve
(Source for Tables 19–21)
The National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients gives a full picture
of homeless service users in late 1996. It provides updated information about the
providers of homeless assistance services and the characteristics of homeless clients who
use these services. Information from this survey was intended for use by federal agencies
responsible for administering homeless assistance programs and by other interested
parties. The survey was conceived, developed, and funded by twelve federal agencies
under the auspices of the Interagency Council on the Homeless, a working group of the
White House Domestic Policy Council. The Census Bureau carried out the data
collection on behalf of the sponsoring agencies. The survey, released in December 1999,
offers the first opportunity since 1987 to update the national picture of homelessness in
a comprehensive and reliable way.
The Economic Costs of Drug Abuse in the United States
(Source for Tables 22 and 23)
ONDCP commissioned the study The Economic Costs of Drug Abuse in the United States,
1992–1998 to update a previous study conducted by NIDA and the National Institute
on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) that was released in 1998, and which was
based on 1992 data. The study also includes cost projections for 1999 and 2000. The
report, conducted by The Lewin Group, uses a cost-of-illness methodology and was
released by ONDCP in January 2002.
National Vital Statistics Report
(Source for Tables 24 and 25)
Data on drug-induced deaths are based on information from all death certificates filed
(2.3 million in 1997) in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Information from the
states is provided to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), a component of
CDC. NCHS tabulates causes of death attributable to drug-induced mortality, including
drug psychoses; drug dependence; nondependent drug use not including alcohol and
tobacco; accidental poisoning by drugs, medicaments, and biologicals; suicide by drugs,
medicaments, and biologicals; assault from poisoning by drugs and medicaments; and
poisoning by drugs, medicaments, and biologicals, undetermined whether accidentally or
purposely inflicted. Drug-induced causes exclude accidents, homicides, and other causes
indirectly related to drug use. Also excluded are newborn deaths associated with mother’s
drug use. The International Classification of Diseases, Version 10 (ICD-10) was
implemented in 1999 following conventions defined by the World Health Organization
to replace Version 9 (ICD-9), in use since 1979. Because of the change in coding causes
of death and the resulting trend discontinuity, death data for 1998 were recalculated by
NCHS to provide a benchmark for comparison of ICD-9 and ICD-10 results.
Drug Abuse Warning Network
(Source for Tables 26 and 72–76)
The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) provides data on drug-related emergency
department episodes and medical examiner cases. DAWN assists federal, state, and local
drug policymakers to examine drug use patterns and trends and assess health hazards
associated with drug abuse. Data are available on deaths and emergency department
episodes by type of drug, reason for taking the drug, demographic characteristics of the
user, and metropolitan area. NIDA maintained DAWN from 1982 through 1991;
SAMHSA has maintained it since 1992.
HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report
(Source for Tables 27 and 28)
The HIV/AIDS Surveillance Reports contain tabular and graphic information about
U.S. AIDS and HIV case reports, including data by state, metropolitan statistical area,
mode of exposure to HIV, sex, race/ethnicity, age group, vital status, and case definition
category. The Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and
TB Prevention, a component of CDC, publishes it semiannually. Data on mode of
exposure to HIV are of interest to the Strategy in light of the role of injection drug use
in HIV transmission.
Reported Tuberculosis in the United States
(Source for Table 29)
The TB Surveillance Reports contain tabular and graphic information about reported
tuberculosis cases collected from 59 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of
Columbia, New York City, U.S. dependencies and possessions, and independent nations
in free association with the United States). The reports include statistics on tuberculosis
case counts and case rates by states and metropolitan statistical areas with tables of
selected demographic and clinical characteristics (e.g., race/ethnicity, age group, country
of origin, form of disease, and drug resistance). The Division of TB Elimination,
National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, a component of CDC, publishes
the reports annually. The reports also include information on injection drug use and
non-injection drug use among TB cases.
Summary of Notifiable Diseases
(Source for Table 30)
This publication contains summary tables of the official statistics for the reported
occurrence of nationally notifiable diseases in the United States, including hepatitis.
These statistics are collected and compiled from reports to the National Notifiable
Diseases Surveillance System, which is operated by CDC in collaboration with the
Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. These data are finalized and published
in CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Review Summary of Notifiable Diseases,
United States for use by state and local health departments; schools of medicine
and public health; communications media; local, state, and federal agencies; and other
agencies or individuals interested in following the trends of reportable diseases in
the United States. The annual publication of the summary also documents which
diseases are considered national priorities for notification and the annual number of
cases of such diseases.
Uniform Crime Reports
(Source for Tables 31 and 32)
The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) is a nationwide census of thousands of city, county,
and state law enforcement agencies. The goal of the UCR is to count in a standardized
manner the number of offenses, arrests, and clearances known to police. Each lawenforcement
agency voluntarily reports data on crimes. Data are reported for the
following nine index offenses: murder and manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery,
aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. Data on drug
arrests, including arrests for possession, sale, and manufacturing of drugs, are included in
the database. Distributions of arrests for drug abuse violations by demographics and
geographic areas also are available. UCR data have been collected since 1930; the FBI
has collected data under a revised system since 1991.
Survey of Inmates in Federal Correctional Facilities and Survey of Inmates in State
(Source for Table 33)
The Survey of Inmates in Federal Correctional Facilities (SIFCF) and Survey of
Inmates in State Correctional Facilities (SISCF) provide comprehensive background
data on inmates in federal and state correctional facilities, based on confidential
interviews with a sample of inmates. Topics include current offenses and sentences,
criminal histories, family and personal backgrounds, gun possession and use, prior
alcohol and drug treatment, and educational programs and other services provided in
prison. The SIFCF and SISCF were sponsored jointly in 1991 by BJS and the Bureau
of Prisons and conducted by the Census Bureau. Similar surveys of state prison
inmates were conducted in 1974, 1979, and 1986. The most recent SIFCF and SISCF
were conducted in 1997.
National Prisoner Statistics Program
(Source for Table 33)
The National Prisoner Statistics Program provides midyear estimates and year-end
counts of federal and state prisoners, some of whom may be in local facilities or facilities
located in other states.
The Monetary Value of Saving a High-Risk Youth
(Source for Tables 34 and 35)
Based on estimates of the social costs associated with the typical career criminal,
the typical drug user, and the typical high school dropout, this study calculates the
average monetary value of saving a high-risk youth. The base data for establishing
the estimates are derived from other studies and official crime data that provide
information on numbers and types of crimes committed by career criminals, as well
as the costs associated with these crimes and with drug abuse and dropping out
Uniform Facility Data Set/National Drug and Alcoholism Treatment Unit Survey
(Source for Tables 36, 37, and 59)
The Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS) measures the location, scope, and
characteristics of drug abuse and alcoholism treatment facilities throughout the United
States. The survey collects data on unit ownership, type, and scope of services provided;
sources of funding; number of clients; treatment capacities; and utilization rates.
Data are reported for a point prevalence date in the fall of the year in which the survey
is administered. Many questions focus on the twelve months prior to that date.
The UFDS, then called the National Drug and Alcoholism Treatment Unit Survey
(NDATUS), was administered jointly by NIDA and the National Institute of
Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism from 1974 to 1991. Since 1992, SAMHSA has
Estimation of Cocaine Availability, 1996–1998
(Source for Table 40)
ONDCP is developing a flow model for cocaine, called the Sequential Transition and
Reduction (STAR) model. The STAR model is anchored to two annual estimates of
cocaine availability: Andean cultivation estimates, and U.S. domestic consumption
estimates. Between these endpoints, other cocaine availabilities are calculated by
sequentially transitioning from one stage to another. For example, from net cultivation,
the model calculates leaf production by applying leaf yield figures and reductions
due to leaf seizures and consumption.
The Price of Illicit Drugs, 1981–2000
(Source for Table 41)
This study commissioned by ONDCP reports national-level drug price and
purity trends for the three major drugs: cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine.
National-level price trends for marijuana are also provided, but purity trends are not
because THC content is not typically measured and is not recorded in DEA’s database.
DEA’s System To Retrieve Information on Drug Evidence (STRIDE) is the primary
source of data for this study, providing lab analyses of street-level drug purchases.
Regional price and purity trends are weighted by DAWN data to calculate a national level
Federal-Wide Drug Seizure System
(Source for Tables 42 and 56)
The Federal-Wide Drug Seizure System (FDSS) is an online computerized system
that stores information about drug seizures made by and with the participation of the
FBI, DEA, Customs Service, Border Patrol, and Coast Guard. The FDSS database
includes drug seizures by other federal agencies (e.g., the Forest Service) to the extent
that custody of the drug evidence was transferred to one of the five agencies identified
above. The FDSS has been maintained by DEA since 1988.
(Source for Tables 43 and 70)
DEA’s Office of Domestic Cannabis Eradication and Suppression Program provides
resources to state and local law enforcement for cannabis eradication. The data
tabulated in this table is from state and local law enforcement reporting of the results
of their efforts.
International Narcotics Control Strategy Report
(Source for Tables 40, 44–46, and 49–55)
The International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR) provides the President
with information on the steps taken by the main illicit drug-producing and transit
countries to prevent drug production, trafficking, and related money laundering
during the previous year. The INCSR helps determine how cooperative a country has
been in meeting legislative requirements in various geographic areas. Drug supply
figures, such as seizures and cultivation estimates are forwarded from each host nation,
through the American embassy, to this U.S. Department of State report.
Estimation of Heroin Availability, 1995–1999
(Source for Table 48)
This research was supported by ONDCP’s Office of Planning and Budget.
Beginning with domestic heroin consumption estimates and source distribution data
from DEA’s Heroin Signature Program, seizure figures are added to measure the
amount of heroin entering the United States from various source regions. These
estimates are closely correlated to potential heroin production estimates for South
America and Mexico.
DEA System to Retrieve Information on Drug Evidence
(Source for Table 56)
The System to Retrieve Information on Drug Evidence (STRIDE) is operated by
DEA and provides laboratory analyses of street-level drug purchases and of drugs
removed from the marketplace where DEA participated in the seizure(s). The system
also provides analyses of drug evidence and their physical and chemical attributes
to determine geographic origins. It offers indicators of drug availability in the form of
long-term trends in the prices and purities of drug exhibits.
Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring/Drug Use Forecasting Program
(Source for Tables 60–69)
The National Institute of Justice established the Drug Use Forecasting (DUF)
program in 1987 to provide an objective assessment of the drug problem among
those arrested and charged with crimes. In 1997, this program became the Arrestee
Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program. ADAM collected data in 35 major
metropolitan sites across the United States in 1998, up from 23 in 1997. Arrestees
are interviewed and asked to provide urine specimens that are tested for evidence of
drug use. Urinalysis results can be matched to arrestee characteristics to help monitor
trends in drug use. The sample size of the data set varies from site to site. Most sites
each collect data from 300–700 adult male arrestees, 100–300 female arrestees
at 32 sites), and 150–300 juvenile male arrestees (at 13 sites).
El Paso Intelligence Center
(Source for Table 71)
The El Paso Intelligence Center (EPIC) maintains the National Clandestine
Laboratory Seizure Database containing information obtained from federal, state,
and local law enforcement. EPIC was established in 1974 as a Southwest Border
intelligence service center. Today, EPIC still concentrates primarily on drug movement
and immigration violations. Staff at the DEA-led center has increased to more than
300 analysts, agents, and support personnel from 15 federal agencies, the Texas
Department of Public Safety, and the Texas Air National Guard. Information sharing
agreements with other federal law enforcement agencies, the Royal Canadian Mounted
Police, and each of the 50 states ensure that EPIC support is available to those
who need it. Real-time information is maintained at EPIC via different federal
databases and EPIC’s own internal database (EID).
The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs: Alcohol and Other
Drug Use Among Students in 30 European Countries
(Source for Table 77)
The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs was jointly
published by the Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs,
CAN Council of Europe, and Co-Operation Group to Combat Drug Abuse and Illicit
Trafficking in Drugs (Pompidou Group). Under this project, data on drug use
prevalence were collected from annual school surveys in up to 30 European countries
and the United States in 1995 and 1999. The target age of youth surveyed was 15 years,
or approximately 10th grade, and the substances focused on included alcohol, tobacco,
and other drugs. The group plans to repeat the surveys every fourth year.
Last Updated: May 7, 2003